Scroll paintings from the Lingnan Foundation

生平 Biography

馬荃 (活躍於17至18世紀),字江香,活躍於清雍正至乾隆年間,江蘇常熟人。她的父親馬馭 (1669-1722) 擅畫花鳥,精通沒骨畫法,並工沈周 (1427-1509)、陸治 (1496-1576) 筆意。馬荃深受她的父親影響,自幼便研習畫理,並吸收了他的畫風。她的丈夫龔充 (活躍於17至18世紀) 亦擅書畫,二人一同游走北京,以賣畫維持生計。龔充離世後,馬氏回到故鄉,專注於花鳥畫創作。由於她的名氣益高,向她求畫的人多不勝數,而一眾貴游士女,亦求她教授繪畫技法。馬氏以勾染法成名,而另一位清代女畫家惲冰 (18世紀) 則以沒骨法著稱,二人在江南被稱為「雙絕」。馬氏晚年失明,但畫作的需求不斷,因此她聘請兩名女畫工代筆。她的作品主要集中於乾隆初期及中期。

出處:
劉詠聰,蕭虹,陳玉冰《中國婦女傳記辭典.清代卷,1644-1911》。悉尼:悉尼大學出版社,2010,頁112。
秦祖永《桐陰論畫》。北京:北京新華書店,1983年,頁45。
湯漱玉《玉臺畫史》,卷三,見于安瀾《畫史叢書》,冊五。上海:上海人民出版社,1963年,頁51。
陶咏白,李湜《失落的歷史:中國女性繪畫史》。長沙:湖南美術出版社,2000年,頁75-76。
Marsha Weidner, Views from Jade Terrace: Chinese Women Artists, 1300-1912 (Indianapolis: Indianapolis Museum of Art; New York: Rizzoli, 1988), 130-131.

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Ma Quan (active from 17th to 18th century), zi Jiangxiang, was active from the Yongzheng to Qianlong reigns of the Qing dynasty. She was a native of Changshu, Jiangsu province. Her father Ma Yu (1669-1722) excelled in flower-and-bird painting and was skilled in “boneless” painting technique. He also followed the brush-ideas of Shen Zhou (1427-1509) and Lu Zhi (1496-1576). Ma Quan was deeply influenced by his father. She studied painting theories with him and absorbed his painting style. Ma’s husband Gong Chong (active from 17th to 18th century) was also skilled in poetry and painting. They sojourned in Beijing and earned a living by selling paintings. After the death of her husband, Ma returned home and focused on flower-and-bird painting. Owing to her increasing reputation as a painter, many people requested her works and gentry ladies also asked for her instruction on painting techniques. Ma was renowned for her outline and colouring method while another contemporary female painter Yun Bin (18th century) was famous for the “boneless” method. Together they were acclaimed in Jiangnan as the “Two Excellence”. Ma lost her sight in her old age. However, demand for her paintings continued, so she hired two female painters to paint in her place. Her works are mostly dated to the early and middle Qianlong periods.

References:
Li Yongchong, Xiao Hong and Chen Yubing, Zhongguo funü zhuanji chidian.Qingdai juan, 1644-1911 (Biographical Dictionary of Chinese Women: Volume of Qing Dynasty, 1644-1911) (Sydney: Sydney University Publishing, 2010), 112.
Tang Shuyu, Yutan huashi (History of Painting on Jade Terrace), vol. 3, in view from Yu Anlan, Huashi congshu (Series of Literature of Painting History), vol. 5 (Shanghai: Shanghai renmin chubanshe, 1963), 51.
Tao Yongbai, and Li Shi, Shiluo de lishi: Zhongguo nüxing huihua shi (Lost History: A History of Chinese Women Painting) (Changsha: Hunan meishu chubanshe, 2000), 75-76.
Marsha Weidner, Views from Jade Terrace: Chinese Women Artists, 1300-1912 (Indianapolis: Indianapolis Museum of Art; New York: Rizzoli, 1988), 130-131.